Defaka and Nkoroo

About the speakers

Number of Speakers

Both languages are critically endangered. Nkoroo has less than 5,000 speakers; Defaka has less than 200 (These numbers are liberal estimates; the actual number of speakers may be even less). As such, documentation of both languages is urgently neccessary.

The status of Defaka is much more precarious than that of Nkoroo (though Nkoroo itself is also under serious threat). The small number of Defaka speakers, and the dominance of other languages in the area, puts the Defaka language in extreme risk of extinction. Within the Defaka communities, Nkoroo is the dominant language. All Defaka people use Nkoroo on an everyday basis, which is an alarming sign of Defaka being lost completely. Because the two language communities are so intertwined, a proper assessment, documentation and description of Defaka must be accompanied by similar work on Nkoroo, to determine how much Defaka has been influenced by Nkoroo.

Project Consultants

Our Defaka consultants:

the project team and our Defaka language consultants

From left to right:

Mrs. Ebi Obikudo (project researcher),
Mr. Harbert Ebenezer,
Mrs. Eunice Monday Nyako,
Prof. Bruce Connell (principal investigator),
Mr. Will Bennett (project researcher),
Mrs. Silverline Johnson,
Senibo Ibiapuwoma Gladday Miller (primary Defaka consultant),
Mr. Bestone Oforibo,
Madam Gladys Igolima,
Mrs. Inoma Essien (project researcher),
Reverend Henry Igbikiberesima (primary Defaka consultant)


Our Kirika (Nkoroo) consultants:

the project team with our Nkoroo language consultants

From left to right:

Mrs. Gloria Irimiagha,
Hon. Cat. David D. Nelson,
Dr. Akinbiyi Akinlabi (principal investigator),
Mrs. Ifamama Clarizar,
Mr. Ezekiel Simeon Igbiks,
Elder Stephen Tankeme Alali,
Elder Zedekiah Frank Opunye (primary Kirika consultant),
Deaconess Antonia Alali (primary Kirika consultant),
Mrs. Ebi Obikudo (project researcher),
Mrs. Maria Diepriye,
Mr. Deme T. Abel,
Reverend Henry Igbikiberesima (primary Defaka consultant),
Mrs. Inoma Essien (project researcher),
Dr. Bruce Connell (principal investigator),
Mr. Malachi Obuibimamu Amah